Dante Aligheri

Diskutime tek 'Letërsia' filluar nga bebi, 13 Nov 2002.

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    Dante Aligheri

    Duke qene se e adhuroj si shkrimtar, do kisha dashur te lexonit dicka nga shkrimet e tij...

    Beatrice

    Dante Aligheri

    Komedia Hyjnore

    Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita
    mi ritrovai per una selva oscura,
    ché la diritta via era smarrita. (vv. 1-3) Midway upon the journey of our life
    I found myself within a forest dark,
    For the straightforward pathway had been lost.
    Ahi quanto a dir qual era è cosa dura
    esta selva selvaggia e aspra e forte
    che nel pensier rinova la paura! (vv. 4-6) Ah me! how hard a thing it is to say
    What was this forest savage, rough, and stern,
    Which in the very thought renews the fear!
    Tant'è amara che poco è più morte;
    ma per trattar del ben ch'i' vi trovai,
    dirò de l'altre cose ch'i' v'ho scorte. (vv. 7-9) So bitter is it, death is little more;
    But of the good to treat, which there I found, Speak will I of the other things I saw there.
    Io non so ben ridir com'i' v'intrai,
    tant'era pien di sonno a quel punto
    che la verace via abbandonai. (vv. 10-12) I cannot well repeat how there I entered,
    So full was I of slumber at the moment
    In which I had abandoned the true way.
    Ma poi ch'i' fui al piè d'un colle giunto,
    là dove terminava quella valle
    che m'avea di paura il cor compunto, (vv. 13-15) But after I had reached a mountain's foot,
    At that point where the valley terminated,
    Which had with consternation pierced my heart,
    guardai in alto, e vidi le sue spalle
    vestite già de' raggi del pianeta
    che mena dritto altrui per ogne calle. (vv. 16-18) Upward I looked, and I beheld its shoulders
    Vested already with that planet's rays
    Which leadeth others right by every road.

    Da Alighiero Bellincione e da donna Bella, Dante nasce a Firenze nel maggio del 1265, da famiglia guelfa di nobili origini ma di modeste condizioni economiche. Si dedica ben presto allo studio delle arti del trivio (grammatica, retorica, dialettica), del quadrivio (aritmetica, geometria, astronomia, musica) e della retorica. Si impegna anche nello studio della letteratura francese e provenzale, imparando anche "l'arte del dire per rima", tanto che nel 1283 pubblica un sonetto, A ciascun Alma, che segnerà l'entrata nella scuola del Dolce Stil Novo.

    Stringe amicizia con Cavalcanti, Giotto, Forese Donati, e compone poesie d'amore dedicate a Beatrice, angelo inviato sulla terra per la salvezza della sua anima. Nel 1290 la morte di Beatrice lo getta in uno stato di profondo sconforto, ma è lo stesso ricordo della sua donna che lo rincuora e lo induce a raccogliere le rime composte in suo onore nella Vita nuova (1292), opera che narra la storia della vita di un uomo che dal mondo materialistico si innalza al mondo spirituale per opera di una donna. È il periodo più bello della sua vita, durante il quale si dedica con più passione agli studi, alla famiglia (è probabilmente in questo periodo che si sposa con Gemma di Manetto Donati, da cui ha tre figli: Iacopo, Antonio e Pietro) e alla politica, ricoprendo varie cariche e raggiungendo la più alta, quella di Priore.

    Nel 1301 a causa di complicazioni politiche tra le fazioni dei Guelfi Bianchi e Neri, Dante viene condannato a due anni di esilio. Inizia il terzo periodo della vita del poeta, il più doloroso, in cui Dante quasi mendico vaga di città in città per molte regioni d’Italia. In questi anni compone due opere che restano incompiute, il De vulgari eloquentia (1303-4, trattato in latino sull’origine del linguaggio, in cui dopo aver trattato i dialetti italiani tenta di stabilire quale sia la lingua più bella e illustre d’Italia), e il Convivio (1304-1307, un trattato enciclopedico in volgare a carattere filosofico-scientifico, in quattro libri, in cui parla dei cieli, del loro moto, dell'amore, dell'immortalità dell'anima, del potere imperiale, dell'instabilità delle ricchezze).

    Nel 1307 incomincia l’opera fondamentale e più nota La Divina Commedia, scritta per poter dire di Beatrice, amore e musa costante della sua vita, cose che non furono mai dette prima di alcuna donna. Quanto al titolo ci è indicato in una epistola inviata a Cangrande della Scala: si chiama "commedia" più per il contenuto che, come nelle commedie, da principio è triste ma termina poi a lieto fine.

    Nel 1310 scrive De Monarchia, trattato in tre libri in cui espone le proprie convinzioni politiche e sostiene che il potere politico e il potere religioso sono indipendenti l’un dall’altro. Inoltre, sostiene che la monarchia è necessaria perché assicura al mondo l’ordine, la pace e la giustizia.

    Nel 1315 il vicario di Firenze bandisce un’altra condanna a morte contro Dante e i suoi figli. Continua la dolorosa via dell’esilio: prima a Ravenna presso Guido Novello da Polenta, poi a Verona dove, ammalatosi, muore nella notte tra il 13 e il 14 settembre 1321. Il suo corpo viene sepolto nella chiesa di San Francesco.
     
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    Re: Dante Aligheri

    La Divina Commedia è un poema allegorico. È il cammino verso la salvezza che ogni uomo può intraprendere attraverso il mistico viaggio di Dante-pellegrino attraverso i tre regni dell’aldilà, sotto la guida prima di Virgilio, poi di Beatrice e infine di S. Bernardo. Il poema, composto da tre cantiche chiamate "Inferno", "Purgatorio" e "Paradiso", è costituito da 100 canti in endecasillabi, precisamente 33 canti per ogni cantica più un canto proemio, scritto in terzine a rima incatenata con un verso di chiusura alla fine di ciascun canto.

    La struttura dell’Inferno
    L'Inferno è una profonda e grandissima voragine a forma di cono rovesciato, il cui vertice giunge al centro della terra. Scendendo nella voragine ci si imbatte nel Fiume Acheronte, nel Limbo e poi nei nove cerchi dove si incontrano i dannati che, pur essendo ombre, conservano il loro aspetto fisico e soffrono tormenti secondo la legge del contrappasso. Troviamo gli incontinenti (lussuriosi, golosi, prodighi, avari e iracondi), i violenti (coloro che peccano contro sé stessi, contro il prossimo, contro Dio) i fraudolenti (coloro che fanno del male con premeditazione, gli eretici, e chi nega l'immortalità dell'anima). In fondo all'inferno, si trova Lucifero con tre facce che con le tre bocche sgranocchia Cassio, Bruto, e Giuda, e con le ali, sempre in movimento, ghiaccia il Cocito. (vedere Inferno I)

    La struttura del Purgatorio
    Il purgatorio ha la forma di un cono, con il vertice in alto. La base del monte costituisce l’Antipurgatorio. Il Purgatorio è diviso in sette ripiani, avente dal lato interno la parete a piombo sul monte, e dal lato esterno il vuoto. Le anime dei purganti giungono in una barchetta guidata da un angelo. Nell’Antipurgatorio stanno i negligenti, coloro che si sono pentiti in punto di morte. Nel Purgatorio le colpe sono classificate secondo i sette peccati capitali: male nei confronti del prossimo (superbi, invidiosi, iracondi), scarso amore verso Dio (accidiosi), troppo amore per i beni materiali (avari, golosi, lussuriosi). In cima al Purgatorio è situato il Paradiso.

    Il Paradiso
    Il Paradiso è sistemato nei cieli. Formato da nove fasce concentriche, attorno a questi nove cieli c’è l’Empireo che è creato da pura luce e qui si trova il Paradiso, che ha la forma di un anfiteatro sulle cui scalinate siedono le anime per contemplare le beatitudini di Dio. L’anfiteatro è diviso in due parti: una parte è occupate dalle anime che credono alla venuta di Dio; dall’alto quelle che credono in Cristo Venuto. Intorno a Dio si muovono nove cerchi angelici. Le anime in rapporto ai meriti acquistati nella vita terrena sono distanti da Dio.

    Dante (Alighieri) 1265 -- 1321

    The Italian poet Dante Alighieri wrote The Divine Comedy, the greatest poetic composition of the Christian Middle Ages and the first masterpiece of world literature written in a modern European vernacular.
    Dante lived in a restless age of political conflict between popes and emperors and of strife within the Italian city-states, particularly Florence, which was torn between rival factions. Spiritually and culturally too, there were signs of change. With the diffusion of Aristotle's physical and metaphysical works, there came the need for harmonizing his philosophy with the truth of Christianity, and Dante's mind was attracted to philosophical speculation. In Italy, Giotto, who had freed himself from the Byzantine tradition, was reshaping the art of painting, while the Tuscan poets were beginning to experiment with new forms of expression. Dante may be considered the greatest and last medieval poet, at least in Italy, where barely a generation later the first humanists were to emerge.

    Dante was born in Florence, the son of Bellincione d'Alighiero. His family descended, he tells us, from "the noble seed" of the Roman founders of Florence and was noble also by virtue of honors bestowed on it later. His great-grandfather Cacciaguida had been knighted by Emperor Conrad III and died about 1147 while fighting in the Second Crusade. As was usual for the minor nobility, Dante's family was Guelph, in opposition to the Ghibelline party of the feudal nobility which strove to dominate the communes under the protection of the emperor.

    Although his family was reduced to modest circumstances, Dante was able to live as a gentleman and to pursue his studies. It is probable that he attended the Franciscan school of Sta Croce and the Dominican school of S. Maria Novella in Florence, where he gained the knowledge of Thomistic doctrine and of the mysticism that was to become the foundation of his philosophical culture. It is known from his own testimony that in order to perfect his literary style he also studied with Brunetto Latini, the Florentine poet and master of rhetoric. Perhaps encouraged by Brunetto in his pursuit of learning, Dante traveled to Bologna, where he probably attended the well-known schools of rhetoric.

    A famous portrait of the young Dante done by Giotto hangs in the Palazzo del Podestà in Florence. We also have the following description of him left us by the author Giovanni Boccaccio: "Our poet was of medium height, and his face was long and his nose aquiline and his jaws were big, and his lower lip stood out in such a way that it somewhat protruded beyond the upper one; his shoulders were somewhat curved, and his eyes large rather than small and of brown color, and his hair and beard were curled and black, and he was always melancholy and pensive." Dante does not write of his family or marriage, but before 1283 his father died, and soon afterward, in accordance with his father's previous arrangements, he married the gentlewoman Gemma di Manetto Donati. They had several children, of whom two sons, Jacopo and Pietro, and a daughter, Antonia, are known.

    Lyric Poetry

    Dante began early in life to compose poetry, an art, he tells us, which he taught himself as a young man (Vita nuova, III, 9). Through his love lyrics he became known to other poets of Florence, and most important to him was his friendship with Guido Cavalcanti, which resulted from an exchange of sonnets.

    Both Dante and Guido were concerned with the effects of love on the mind, particularly from a philosophical point of view; only Dante, however, began gradually to develop the idea that love could become the means of spiritual perfection. And while Guido was more interested in natural philosophy, Dante assiduously cultivated his knowledge of the Latin poets, particularly Virgil, whom he later called his guide and authority in the art of poetry.

    During his youth Dante had known a young and noble Florentine woman whose grace and beauty so impressed him that in his poetry she became the idealized Beatrice, the "bringer of blessings," who seemed "a creature come from heaven to earth, A miracle manifest in reality" (Vita nuova, XXVI). She is believed to have been Bice, the daughter of Folco Portinari, and later the wife of Simone dei Bardi. Dante had seen her for the first time when both were in their ninth year; he had named her in a ballad among the 60 fairest women of Florence. But it was only later that Beatrice became the guide of his thoughts and emotions "toward that ideal perfection which is the goal of every noble mind," and the praise of her virtue and grace became the subject of his poetry.

    When the young Beatrice died on June 8, 1290, Dante was overcome with grief but found consolation in thoughts of her glory in heaven. Although another woman succeeded briefly in winning Dante's love through her compassion, the memory of Beatrice soon aroused in him feelings of remorse and renewed his fidelity to her. He was prompted to gather from among all his poems those which had been written in her honor or had some bearing on his love for her. This plan resulted in the small volume of poetry and prose, the Vita nuova (New Life), in which he copied from his "book of memory" only those past experiences belonging to his "new life"--a life made new through Beatrice. It follows Dante's own youthful life through three movements or stages in love, in which Beatrice's religious and spiritual significance becomes increasingly clear. At the same time it traces his poetic development from an early phase reminiscent of the Cavalcantian manner to a foreshadowing of The Divine Comedy. In the last prose chapter, which tells of a "miraculous vision," the poet speaks of the major work that he intends to write and the important role Beatrice will have in it: "If it be the wish of Him in whom all things flourish that my life continue for a few years, I hope to write of her that which has never been written of any other lady."

    The Vita nuova, written between 1292 and 1294, is one of the first important examples of Italian literary prose. Its 31 poems, most of them sonnets symmetrically grouped around three canzoni, are only a small selection of Dante's lyric production. He wrote many other lyrics inspired by Beatrice which are not included in the Vita nuova; in addition there are verses written to other women and poems composed at different times in his life, representing a variety of forms and stylistic experiences.

    Political Activities

    Dante's literary interests did not isolate him from the events of his times. On the contrary, he was involved in the political life of Florence and deeply concerned about the state of Europe as a whole. In 1289 he had fought with the Florentine cavalry at the battle of Campaldino. In 1295 he inscribed himself in the guild of physicians and pharmacists (membership in a guild being a precondition for holding public office in Florence). He became a member of the people's council and served in various other capacities. For two months in 1300 he was one of the six priors of Florence, and in 1301 he was a member of the Council of the One Hundred.

    In October 1301 Dante was sent in a delegation from the commune to Pope Boniface VIII, whose policies he openly opposed as constituting a threat to Florentine independence. During his absence the Blacks (one of the two opposing factions within the Guelph party) gained control of Florence. In the resulting banishment of the Whites, Dante was sentenced to exile in absentia (January 1302). Despite various attempts to regain admission to Florence--at first in an alliance of other exiles whose company he soon abandoned and later through his writing--he was never to enter his native city again.

    Dante led the life of an exile, taking refuge first with Bartolommeo della Scala in Verona, and after a time of travel--to Bologna, through northern Italy, possibly also to Paris between 1307 and 1309--with Can Grande della Scala in Verona (1314). During this time his highest hopes were placed in Emperor Henry VII, who descended into Italy in 1310 to restore justice and order among the cities and to reunite church and state. When Henry VII, whose efforts proved fruitless, died in Siena in 1313, Dante lost every hope of restoring himself to an honorable position in Florence.

    Minor Works

    During these years of wandering Dante's studies were not interrupted. Indeed, he had hoped that in acquiring fame as a poet and philosopher he might also regain the favor of his fellow citizens. His study of Boethius and Cicero in Florence had already widened his philosophical horizons. After 1290 he had turned to the study of philosophy with such fervor that "in a short time, perhaps 30 months" he had begun "to be so keenly aware of her sweetness that the love of her drove away and destroyed every other thought." He read so much, it seems, that his eyes were weakened. Two uncompleted treatises, De vulgari eloquentia (1303-1304) and the Convivio (1304-1307), belong to the early period of exile. At the same time, about 1306, he probably began to compose The Divine Comedy.

    In De vulgari eloquentia, a theoretical treatise in Latin on the Italian vernacular, Dante intended to treat of all aspects of the spoken language, from the highest poetic expression to the most humble familiar speech. The first book is devoted to a discussion of dialects and the principles of poetic composition in the vulgar tongue; the second book treats specifically of the "illustrious" vulgar tongue used by certain excellent poets and declares that this noble form of expression is suitable only for the most elevated subjects, such as love, virtue, and war, and must be used in the form of the canzone.

    The Convivio was intended to consist of 15 chapters: an introduction and 14 canzoni, with prose commentaries in Italian; but only 4 chapters were completed. The canzoni, which are the "meat" of the philosophical banquet while the prose commentaries are the "bread," appear to be written to a beautiful woman. But the prose commentaries interpret these poems as an allegorical exaltation of philosophy, inspired by the love of wisdom. Dante wished to glorify philosophy as the "mistress of his mind" and to treat subjects of moral philosophy, such as love and virtue. The Convivio is in a sense a connecting link between the Vita nuova and The Divine Comedy. Thus in the latter work reason in the pursuit of knowledge and wisdom becomes man's sole guide on earth, except for the intervention of Divine Grace, in his striving for virtue and God. In the Convivio Dante also defends the use of the vernacular as a suitable medium for ethical and scientific subjects, as well as amorous ones.

    The Latin treatise De monarchia, of uncertain date but possibly attributable to the time of Henry VII's descent into Italy (1310-1313), is a statement of Dante's political theories. At the same time it is intended as a practical guide toward the restoration of peace in Europe under a temporal monarch in Rome, whose authority proceeds directly from God.

    During his exile Dante also wrote various Latin epistles and letters of political nature to Italian prices and cardinals. Belonging to a late period are two Latin eclogues and the scientific essay Quaestio de aqua et terra (1320). Il fiore, a long sonnet sequence, is of doubtful attribution.

    In 1315 Dante twice refused pardons offered him by the citizens of Florence under humiliating conditions. He and his children were consequently condemned to death as rebels. He spent his last years in Tuscany, in Verona, and finally in Ravenna. There, under the patronage of Guido da Polenta and joined by his children (possibly also his wife), Dante was greatly esteemed and spent a happy and peaceful period until his death on September 13 or 14, 1321.

    The Divine Comedy

    The original title of Dante's masterpiece, which he completed shortly before his death, was Commedia; the epithet Divina was added by posterity. The purpose of this work, as Dante writes in his letter to Can Grande, is "to remove those living in this life from the state of misery and lead them to the state of felicity." The Commedia is divided into three parts: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso (Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven, respectively). The second and third sections contain 33 cantos apiece; the Inferno has 34, since its opening canto is an introduction to the entire work. The measure throughout the poem is terza rima, consisting of lines in sets of 3, rhyming aba, bcb, cdc, and so on.

    The main action of the literal narrative centers on Dante's journey to God through the agency of Beatrice; the moral or allegorical meaning that Dante wishes the reader to keep in mind is that God will do for everyman what he has done for one man, if everyman is willing to make this journey. Dante constructs an allegory of a double journey: his experience in the supernatural world points to the journey of everyman through this life. The poet finds himself in a dark wood (sin); he tries to escape by climbing a mountain illuminated by the sun (God). Impeded by the sudden appearance of three beasts, which symbolize the major divisions of sin in the Inferno, he is about to be driven back when Virgil (human reason) appears, sent to his aid by Beatrice. Virgil becomes Dante's guide through Hell, in a descent that is the first stage in his ascent to God in humility. The pilgrim learns all there is to know about sin and confronts the very foundation of sin, which is pride, personified in Lucifer frozen at the very center of the universe. Only now is he spiritually prepared to begin his ascent through the realm of purification.

    The mountain of the Purgatorio is a place of repentance, regeneration, and conversion. The penitents endure severe punishments, but all are pilgrims directed to God, in an atmosphere of love, hope, and an eager willingness in suffering. On the mountain's summit Beatrice (divine revelation) comes to take Virgil's place as Dante's guide--for the final ascent to God, human reason is insufficient.

    The Paradiso depicts souls contemplating God; they are in a state of perfect happiness in the knowledge of His divine truths. The dominant image in this realm is light. God is light, and the pilgrim's goal from the start was to reach the light. His spiritual growth toward the attainment of this end is the main theme of the entire poem. © 2001 Gale Group
     
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    Poems della VITA NUOVA
    Piangete, amanti, poi che piange Amore

    Piangete, amanti, poi che piange Amore,
    Udendo qual cagion lui fa plorare.
    Amor sente a Pietà donne chiamare,
    Mostrando amaro duol per li occhi fore,

    Perché villana Morte in gentil core 5
    Ha miso il suo crudele adoperare,
    Guastando ciò che al mondo è da laudare
    In gentil donna sovra de l’onore.

    Audite quanto Amor le fece orranza,
    Ch’io ‘l vidi lamentare in forma vera 10
    Sovra la morta imagine avvenente;

    E riguardava ver lo ciel sovente,
    Ove l’alma gentil già locata era,
    Che donna fu di sì gaia sembianza. [/i]
     
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    Tutti li miei penser parlan d’Amore

    Tutti li miei penser parlan d’Amore;
    E hanno in lor sì gran varietate,
    Ch’altro mi fa voler sua potestate,
    Altro folle ragiona il suo valore,

    Altro sperando m’apporta dolzore, 5
    Altro pianger mi fa spesse fiate;
    E sol s’accordano in cherer pietate,
    Tremando di paura che è nel core.

    Ond’io non so da qual matera prenda;
    E vorrei dire, e non so ch’io mi dica: 10
    Così mi trovo in amorosa erranza.

    E se con tutti voi’ fare accordanza,
    Convenemi chiamar la mia nemica,
    Madonna la Pietà, che mi difenda. All of My Thoughts Can Only Speak of Love

    All of my thoughts can only speak of Love,
    greatly endowed with such variety
    that one compels me all his might to see,
    madly another does his valor prove,

    another makes me hope as well as grieve, 5
    and still another brings but tears to me:
    on begging but for pity they agree,
    such are the fears that in my heart still live.

    Thus, with no subject wherefrom to commence,
    I wish to speak, and know not what to say, 10
    in such a lovely labyrinth am I!

    And if for peaceful living now I sigh,
    invoke I must my only foe today—
    my Lady Mercy
     
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    L’amaro lagrimar che voi faceste

    “L’amaro lagrimar che voi faceste,
    Oi occhi miei, così lunga stagione,
    Facea lagrimar l’altre persone
    De la pietate, come voi vedeste.

    Ora mi par che voi l’obliereste, 5
    S’io fosse dal mio lato sì fellone
    Ch’i’ non ven disturbasse ogne cagione,
    Membrandovi colei cui voi piangeste.

    La vostra vanità mi fa pensare,
    E spaventami sì, ch’io temo forte 10
    Del viso d’una donna che vi mira.

    Voi non dovreste mai, se non per morte,
    La vostra donna, ch’è morta, obliare”.
    Così dice ‘l meo core, e poi sospira. The Bitter Tears of Bitter Agony

    “The bitter tears of bitter agony,
    that you, poor eyes of mine, so long have shed,
    made other people all around you sadly
    weep from pity, as you well could see.

    You would forget all this , it seems to me, 5
    if I were on my part so wholly bad
    as not to make you think again, instead,
    of her for whom you wept so wretchedly.

    Pensive I grow for this your foolishness,
    and frightened so, that very much I dread 10
    ‘tis someone else’s sight you’re conquered by.

    Never must you forget, my eyes,—unless
    Death come to close you—your sole mistress, dead.”
    So speaks my heart, and soon it heaves a sigh.

     
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    Lo doloroso amor che mi conduce

    Lo doloroso amor che mi conduce
    a fin di morte per piacer di quella
    che lo mio cor solea tener gioioso,
    m’ha tolto e togli e ciascun di la luce
    che avean li occhi miei di tale stella:, 5
    che non credea di lei mai star doglioso:
    e ‘l colpo suo c’ho portato nascoso,
    omai si scopre per soverchia pena,
    la qual nasce del foco
    che m’ha tratto di gioco, 10
    sì ch’altro mai che male io non aspetto;
    e ‘l viver mio (omai esser de’ poco)
    fin a la morte mia sospira e dice:
    “Per quella moro c’ha nome Beatrice”.

    Quel dolce nome, che mi fa il cor agro, 15
    tutte fiate ch’i’ lo vedrò scritto
    mi farà nuovo ogni dolor ch’io sento;
    e de la doglia diverrò sì magro
    de la persona, e ‘l viso tanto afflitto,
    che qual mi vederà n’avrà pavento. 20
    E allor non trarrà sì poco vento
    che non mi meni, sì ch’io cadrò freddo;
    e per tal verrò morto,
    e ‘l dolor sarà scorto
    con l’anima che sen girà sì trista; 25
    e sempre mai con lei starà ricolto,
    ricordando la gio’ del dolce viso,
    a che niente par lo paradiso.

    Pensando a quel che d’Amore ho provato,
    l’anima mia non chiede altro diletto, 30
    né il penar non cura il quale attende:
    ché, poi che ‘l corpo sarà consumato,
    se n’anderà l’amor che m’ha sì stretto
    con lei a Quel ch’ogni ragione intende;
    e se del suo peccar pace no i rende, 35
    partirassi col tormentar ch’è degna;
    sì che non ne paventa,
    e starà tanto attenta
    d’imaginar colei per cui s’è mossa,
    che nulla pena avrà ched ella senta; 40
    sì che, se ‘n questo mondo io l’ho perduto,
    Amor ne l’altro men darà trebuto.

    Morte, che fai piacere a questa donna,
    per pietà, innanzi che tu mi discigli,
    va’ da lei, fatti dire 45
    perché m’avvien che la luce di quigli
    che mi fan tristo, mi sia così tolta:
    se per altrui ella fosse ricolta,
    falmi sentire, e trarra’mi d’errore,
    e assai finirò con men dolore. 50 The Painful Love that Leads Me unto Death

    he painful love that leads me unto death—
    such is the pleasure of the very one
    who used to hold my heart in great delight—
    took, and is taking still, day after day,
    away from these my eyes such starry light 5
    as made me think I’d know no more dismay.
    The inner wound I have till now concealed
    is for excessive anguish now well known—
    grief born of the same fire
    that kindled my desire— 10
    so that at present I await but ill,
    for this my life (whatever’s left of it)
    until the very end will only sigh:
    “For one whose name is Beatrice I die.”

    The sweet name that embitters so my heart, 15
    whene’er I’ll see it written anywhere,
    is bound to render every sorrow new,
    and each new grief will make me then appear
    so pale and thin and sad in every way
    that those who see me will my presence fear. 20
    The lightest-blowing wind will prove so strong
    that, cold, upon the ground I’ll quickly fall,
    and with no life at all:
    together with my soul,
    so anguished, will my grief then speed away, 25
    forever in its company to stay,
    remembering the bliss of those sweet eyes
    to which surrenders the whole paradise.

    Recalling all that Love has made me feel,
    my soul is craving for no more delight, 30
    and fears no ill that yet may come to me,
    for, when my body’s wholly wrecked and worn,
    this love that pained me so will soar along
    to Him, who can all earthly reasons see;
    and, if still unforgiven for its sin, 35
    it will depart with its well-earned despair,
    of terror unaware,
    while trying still to feign
    the one who bade it move, in such a way
    that no new suffering will hurt it more: 40
    and so, for all my human losses, Love
    will finally reward my soul above.

    O Death, who give this lady much delight,
    before you pluck my life, go there, I pray,
    and ask her to reveal 45
    the reason why the luster of those eyes
    is so withdrawn they cause me such dismay.
    And if she’s now with someone else in love,
    oh, let me know, and my illusion rend,
    so that I may with less affliction end.
     
  8. bebi

    bebi Primus registratum

    Re: Dante Aligheri

    Voi che savete ragionar d’Amore

    Voi che savete ragionar d’Amore,
    udite la ballata mia pietosa,
    che parla d’una donna disdegnosa,
    la qual m’ha tolto il cor per suo valore.

    Tanto disdegna qualunque la mira, 5
    che fa chinare gli occhi di paura,
    però che intorno a’ suoi sempre si gira
    d’ogni crudelitate una pintura;
    ma dentro portan la dolze figura
    ch’a l’anima gentil fa dir: “Merzede!”, 10
    si vertuosa, che quando si vede,
    trae li sospiri altrui fora del core.

    Par ch’ella dica: “Io non sarò umile
    verso d’alcun che ne li occhi mi guardi,
    ch’io ci porto entro quel segnor gentile 15
    che m’ha fatto sentir de li suoi dardi”.
    E certo i’ credo che così li guardi
    per vederli per sé quando le piace,
    a quella guisa retta donna face
    quando si mira per volere onore. 20

    Io non ispero che mai per pietate
    degnasse di guardare un poco altrui,
    così è fera donna in sua bieltate
    questa che sente Amor ne gli occhi sui.
    Ma quanto vuol nasconda e guardi lui, 25
    ch’io non veggia talor tanta salute;
    però che i miei disiri avran vertute
    contra ‘l disdegno che mi dà tremore. You, Who Know Well How to Converse of Love
    You, who know well how to converse of Love,
    oh, listen to my ballad of dismay,
    that speaks of a disdainful lady, who
    with all her worth has snatched my heart away.

    She so disdains whoever looks at her, 5
    that he in fear must bend his gaze at once:
    a cruel image ‘round her eyes is seen,
    dwelling forever in her every glance;
    and yet a portrait of all loveliness
    is also there, which makes a gentle soul 10
    say, “Mercy!” with so much humility,
    it causes men to sigh, who her can see.

    She seems to say, “I will not humble be
    to those who try to look straight in my eyes,
    for it is there that gentle lord abides, 15
    who made me feel the sharpness of his darts.”
    And this, I know, is how she likes to see them,
    to savor, when she pleases, all their sight,
    like a wise woman, with her mirror faced,
    watching herself and wishing to be praised. 20

    I do not hope that, being kind, she may
    deign other people of a single look,
    such is the hardness by her beauty brought,
    and such is Love she feels within her eyes.
    But let her watch him to her heart’s content, 25
    and hide so much salvation from my gaze:
    all my desires will at last prevail
    against the harsh disdain that makes me pale.
     
  9. bebi

    bebi Primus registratum

    Re: Dante Aligheri

    Deh, Violetta, che in ombra d’Amore

    Deh, Violetta, che in ombra d’Amore
    ne gli occhi miei sì subito apparisti,
    aggi pietà del cor che tu feristi,
    che spera in te e disvïando more.

    Tu, Violetta, in forma più che umana, 5
    foco mettesti dentro in la mia mente
    col tuo piacer ch’io vidi;
    poi con atto di spirito cocente
    creasti speme, che in parte mi sana
    là dove tu mi ridi. 10

    Deh, non guardare perché a lei mi fidi,
    ma drizza li occhi al gran disio che m’arde,
    ché mille donne già per esser tarde
    sentiron pena de l’altrui dolore. Oh, Violetta, Who in Love’s Own Guise

    Oh, Violetta, who in Love’s own guise
    came as a sudden vision to my gaze,
    have mercy on a heart you wounded so,
    which, trusting you, in its own longing dies.

    You, Violetta, more than humanly 5
    set this my mind afire
    with all the beauty I beheld in you;
    then with a flaming spirit soaring higher,
    hope you created, which now partly heals
    the ache if you but smile. 10

    Ignore that I rely on it, but oh,
    look at the great desire now burning me:
    numberless women, having tarried long,
    later regretted each inflicted wrong.
     
  10. bebi

    bebi Primus registratum

    Re: Dante Aligheri

    Amore e ‘l cor gentil sono una cosa

    Amore e ‘l cor gentil sono una cosa,
    Sì come il saggio in suo dittare pone,
    E così esser l’un sanza l’altro osa
    Com’alma razional sanza ragione.

    Fàlli natura quand’è amorosa, 5
    Amor per sire e ‘l cor per sua magione,
    Dentro la qual dormendo si riposa
    Tal volta poca e tal lunga stagione.

    Bieltate appare in saggia donna pui,
    Che piace a gli occhi sì, che dentro al core 10
    Nasce un disio de la cosa piacente;

    E tanto dura talora in costui,
    Che fa svegliar lo spirito d’Amore.
    E simil face in donna omo valente. Love and a Gentle Heart Are But One Thing

    Love and a gentle heart are but one thing,
    as the philosopher in his sentence wrote;
    so they without each other live dare not
    as rational spirit without reasoning.

    ‘Tis nature, when in love, makes Love a king, 5
    and in his mansion lodges then the heart,
    wherein he rests, as in his habitat,
    either in brief or lengthy slumbering.

    Beauty in a wise lady then appears,
    which so delights the eye, the heart is taken 10
    with longings of the thing that pleases so;

    and this delight at times so long endures
    it makes Love’s very spirit soon awaken.
    The same a woman feels about man’s awe.
     
  11. bebi

    bebi Primus registratum

    Re: Dante Aligheri

    Ne li occhi porta la mia donna Amore

    Ne li occhi porta la mia donna Amore,
    Per che si fa gentil ciò ch’ella mira;
    Ov’ella passa, ogn’om ver lei si gira,
    E cui saluta fa tremar lo core,

    Sì che, bassando il viso, tutto smore, 5
    E d’ogni suo difetto allor sospira:
    Fugge dinanzi a lei superbia ed ira.
    Aiutatemi, donne, farle onore.

    Ogne dolcezza, ogne pensero umile
    Nasce nel core a chi parlar la sente, 10
    Ond’è laudato chi prima la vide.

    Quel ch’ella par quando un poco sorride,
    Non si pò dicer né tenere a mente,
    Sì è novo miracolo e gentile. My Lady Carries Love Within Her Eyes

    My lady carries Love within her eyes,
    whereby whate’er she looks at gentle grows.
    Towards her, where she passes, each man draws,
    and, greeted by her, tremblingly replies.

    His forehead bent, he pales and nearly dies, 5
    so deeply his defects he sees and knows.
    Envy and pride dare not stay to her close:
    then help me, ladies, praise her to the skies.

    Every most humbling thought and every bliss
    rise in the heart of one who hears her speak, 10
    so that who sees her first is firstly blest.

    And if her faintest smile be manifest,
    to tell it, word is vain, and mind is weak
    so new and dear a miracle it is.
     
  12. bebi

    bebi Primus registratum

    Re: Dante Aligheri

    A ciascun’alma presa e gentil core

    A ciascun’alma presa e gentil core
    Nel cui cospetto ven lo dir presente,
    In ciò che mi rescrivan suo parvente,
    Salute in lor segnor, cioè Amore.

    Già eran quasi che atterzate l’ore 5
    Del tempo che onne stella n’è lucente,
    Quando m’apparve Amor subitamente,
    Cui essenza membrar mi dà orrore.

    Allegro mi sembrava Amor tenendo
    Meo core in mano, e ne le braccia avea 10
    Madonna involta in un drappo dormendo.

    Poi la svegliava, e d’esto core ardendo
    Lei paventosa umilmente pascea:
    Appresso gir lo ne vedea piangendo. To Every Loving, Gentle-Hearted Friend

    To every loving, gentle-hearted friend,
    to whom the present rhyme is soon to go
    so that I may their written answer know,
    greetings in Love’s own name, their lord, I send.

    The third hour of the time was near at end 5
    when every star in heaven is aglow:
    ‘twas then Love came before me, dreadful so
    that my remembrance is with horror rent.

    Joyous appeared he in his hand to keep
    my very heart, and, lying on his breast, 10
    my lady, veil-enwrapped and full asleep.

    But he awakened her, and of my heart,
    aflame, he humbly made her, fearful, taste:
    I saw him, finally, in tears depart.

    Voi che portate la sembianza umile

    Voi che portate la sembianza umile,
    Con li occhi bassi, mostrando dolore,
    Onde venite, che ‘l vostro colore
    Par divenuto de pietà simile?

    Vedeste voi nostra donna gentile 5
    Bagnar nel viso suo di pianto Amore?
    Ditelmi, donne, ché ‘l mi dice il core,
    Perch’io vi veggio andar sanz’atto vile.

    E se venite da tanta pietate,
    Piacciavi di restar qui meco alquanto, 10
    E qual che sia di lei, nol mi celate.

    Io veggio li occhi vostri c’hanno pianto,
    E veggiovi tornar sì sfigurate
    Che ‘1 cor mi triema di vederne tanto.

    Se’ tu colui c’hai trattato sovente

    Se’ tu colui c’hai trattato sovente
    Di nostra donna, sol parlando a nui?
    Tu risomigli a la voce ben lui,
    Ma la figura ne par d’altra gente.

    E perché piangi tu sì coralmente, 5
    Che fai di te pietà venire altrui?
    Vedestù pianger lei, che tu non pui
    Punto celar la dolorosa mente?

    Lascia piangere noi e triste andare
    (E fa peccato chi mai ne conforta), 10
    Che nel suo pianto l’udimmo parlare.

    Ell’ha nel viso la pietà sì scorta
    Che qual l’avesse voluta mirare
    Sarebbe innanzi lei piangendo morta. Oh, You, Who Show Such Countenance of Woe

    Oh, you, who show such countenance of woe,
    with obvious sorrow in your bended gaze,
    where are you coming from? Upon your face
    nothing but pity’s color is aglow.

    Did you see Love’s own tears in sadness flow, 5
    mingled with hers—the fount of gentleness?
    Oh, tell me, ladies, what my heart can guess,
    for I behold you so submissive go.

    And if you come from so much piety,
    oh, for a while remain beside me here, 10
    and all you know of her hide not from me.

    Your eyes, I see, have shed too many a tear,
    for you return in such great misery,
    this heart of mine is overwhelmed with fear.

    Are You the One Who of Our Lady Spoke

    Are you the one who of our lady spoke
    many a time, addressing us alone?
    er voice you liken to Love’s very own,
    but like somebody else she seems to look.

    What makes you now so heartily bemoan, 5
    that other people of your grief partake?
    Have you seen her in tears, that you should make
    whatever pains your mind so plainly known?

    Oh, let us weep and still in grief proceed,
    who heard her speak and tearfully lament 10
    (sinful is he, who ever comforts us).

    Such pity was on her face evident
    that, had one dared to see her as she was,
    one would have, weeping, in her presence died.
     
  13. bebi

    bebi Primus registratum

    Re: Dante Aligheri

    Sì lungiamente m’ha tenuto Amore

    Sì lungiamente m’ha tenuto Amore
    E costumato a la sua segnoria,
    Che sì com’elli m’era forte in pria,
    Così mi sta soave ora nel core.

    Però quando mi tolle sì ‘l valore 5
    Che li spiriti par che fuggan via,
    Allor sente la frale anima mia
    Tanta dolcezza che ‘l viso ne smore,

    Poi prende Amore in me tanta vertute
    Che fa li miei spiriti gir parlando, 10
    Ed escon for chiamando

    La donna mia, per darmi più salute.
    Questo m’avvene ovunque ella mi vede,
    E sì è cosa umil, che nol si crede. Love Still Retains Me in His Sovereignty

    Love still retains me in his sovereignty,
    to which I’ve been accustomed for so long
    that, just as he before was harsh and strong,
    he reigns now in my heart most tranquilly.

    But when it robs me of my valiancy, 5
    and all my spirits seem a fleeting throng,
    in my frail soul I tatste a bliss so strong
    it makes my features pallid instantly;

    and Love regains such power in me then,
    he makes my every spirit fare about, 10
    talking and calling out

    my lady, so that I more grace obtain.
    Where’er she sees me, this occurs to me,
    yet none believes how humble she can be.


    Donna pietosa e di novella etate

    Donna pietosa e di novella etate,
    Adorna assai di gentilezze umane,
    Ch’ era là ‘v’io chiamava spesso Morte, Veggendo li occhi miei pien di pietate
    E ascoltando le parole vane, 5
    Si mosse con paura a pianger forte.
    E altre donne, che si fuoro accorte
    Di me per quella che meco piangia,
    Fecer lei partir via,
    E appressarsi per farmi sentire. 10
    Qual dicea: “Non dormire”.
    E qual dicea: “Perché sì ti sconforte?”
    Allor lassai la nova fantasia,
    Chiamando il nome de la donna mia.

    Era la voce mia sì dolorosa 15
    E rotta sì da l’angoscia del pianto,
    Ch’io solo intesi il nome nel mio core;
    E con tutta la vista vergognosa
    Ch’era nel viso mio giunta cotanto,
    Mi fece verso lor volgere Amore. 20
    Elli era tale a veder mio colore,
    Che facea ragionar di morte altrui:
    Deh, consoliam costui ”
    Pregava l’una l’altra umilemente;
    E dicevan sovente: 25
    “Che vedestù, che tu non hai valore? ”
    E quando un poco confortato fui,
    Io dissi: “Donne, dicerollo a vui.

    Mentr’io pensava la mia frale vita,
    E vedea ‘l suo durar com’è leggiero, 30
    Piansemi Amor nel core, ove dimora;
    Per che l’anima mia fu sì smarrita
    Che sospirando dicea nel pensero:
    Ben converrà che la mia donna mora.—
    Io presi tanto smarrimento allora 35
    Ch’io chiusi li occhi vilmente gravati,
    E furon sì smagati
    Li spirti miei, che ciascun giva errando;
    E poscia imaginando,
    Di caunoscenza e di verità fora, 40
    Visi di donne m’apparver crucciati,
    Che mi dicean pur:—Morra’ti, morra’ti. —

    Poi vidi cose dubitose molte
    Nel vano imaginare ov’io entrai;
    Ed esser mi parea non so in qual loco, 45
    E veder donne andar per via disciolte,
    Qual lagrimando, e qual traendo guai
    Che di tristizia saettavan foco.
    Poi mi parve vedere a poco a poco
    Turbar lo sole e apparir la stella, 50
    E pianger elli ed ella;
    Cader li augelli volando per l’are,
    E la terra tremare;
    Ed omo apparve scolorito e fioco,
    Dicendomi:—Che fai? non sai novella? 55
    Morta è la donna tua, ch’era sì bella.—

    Levava li occhi miei bagnati in pianti,
    E vedea, che parean pioggia di manna,
    Li angeli che tornavan suso in cielo,
    E una nuvoletta avean davanti, 60
    Dopo la qual gridavan tutti: Osanna;
    E s’ altro avesser detto, a voi dire’lo.
    Allor diceva Amor:—Più nol ti celo;
    Vieni a veder nostra donna che giace.—
    Lo imaginar fallace 65
    Mi condusse a veder madonna morta;
    E quand’io l’avea scorta,
    Vedea che donne la covrian d’un velo;
    Ed avea seco umilità verace,
    Che parea che dicesse:—Io sono in pace— 70

    Io divenia nel dolor sì umile,
    Veggendo in lei tanta umiltà formata,
    Ch’io dicea:—Morte, assai dolce ti tegno;
    Tu dèi omai esser cosa gentile,
    Poi che tu se’ ne la mia donna stata, 75
    E dèi aver pietate e non disdegno.
    Vedi che sì desideroso vegno
    D’esser de’ tuoi, ch’io ti somiglio in fede.
    Vieni, chè ‘l cor te chiede.—
    Poi mi partia, consumato ogne duolo; 80
    E quand’io era solo,
    Dicea, guardando verso l’alto regno:
    —Beato, anima bella, chi te vede!—
    Voi mi chiamaste allor, vostra merzede”. A Kindly Lady in Her Youthful Years

    A kindly lady in her youthful years,
    greatly adorned with human gentleness,
    stood there, where I for Death did often long.
    Seeing my eyes so sadly filled with tears,
    and hearing all my words of emptiness, 5
    fearful, she started weeping, loud and strong.
    And other women, when they noticed me
    because of her who wept with me along,
    suddenly bade her go,
    and, to be heard, drew closer to my bed. 10“Oh, sleep no more,” some said;
    some other, “Why your sadness so prolong?”
    Out of my recent vision so I came,
    calling repeatedly my lady’s name.

    So was my voice by bitter sobbing rent, 15
    and so by anguish broken every word,
    that her name echoed in my heart alone.
    Yet notwithstanding what was evident—
    shame that had gravely on my face appeared—
    Love bade me turn towards them with a moan. 20
    My pallor was so pitifully shown,
    it made all of them think my death was near.
    “Let’s comfort this man here,”
    they begged each other with humility,
    and often said to me, 25
    “What did you see, that makes you sad and wan?”
    And after I was somewhat comforted,
    “Ladies, I’ll tell you everything,” I said.

    Musing on my frail life with every thought,
    and seeing how short were its remaining days, 30
    here in my heart—his home—I heard Love cry,
    which made my soul so utterly distraught,
    it soon addressed my mind with all its sighs,
    “My lady, too, my lady, too, will die.”
    Oh, such was at that moment my dismay, 35
    I closed my eyes, so heavy and afraid,
    and all my spirits swayed
    so lifeless, each meandered lost and blind.
    ‘Twas then that in my mind,
    straying from truth and knowledge far away, 40
    sad women’s faces I beheld convening,
    “You will die! You will die!” all of them keening.

    Many a doubtful object then I viewed
    in the strange nightmare that my fancy kept.
    It seemed to me I was I know not where, 45
    and ‘long that road I saw a multitude
    of women, who, disheveled, wailed and wept,
    making a flame of sadness round me glare.
    Then, slowly, very slowly in the air,
    I saw the sun and the night-star appear, 50
    shedding a mingled tear;
    I saw birds falling from the firmament,
    and the earth tremble bent;
    and, raucous, pale, a man said then and there,
    “Are you, are you here still? Did you not hear? 55
    Dead is your lady, who was once so fair.”

    I lifted then my gaze, which tears had stained,
    and saw (they looked to me like rain of manna)
    angels returning quickly to their sky,
    borne by a blessed cloudlet, light and faint, 60
    behind which they, as one , sang all “Hosannah!”
    If they had spoken else, oh, so would I.
    “Now I must tell you,” I heard Love reply;
    “Come! See our lady, lying now so still.”
    That vision brought my will 65
    there, where my lovely lady lifeless lay.
    I looked at her, until
    women I saw who wrapped her in a veil:
    there, of such true humility possessed,
    my lady seemed to say, “In peace I rest.” 70

    So humble grew I in my misery,
    seeing so much humility on her mien,
    that I said, “Death, I hold you very dear.
    A thing of gentleness you must now be,
    for on my lady you indeed have been, 75
    and must now have compassion and no sneer.
    Willingly, see, I come, and without fear,
    into your kingdom, for I look like you.
    Come, to my heart be true!”
    When grief was spent, I moved from there away, 80
    and, when alone I lay,
    I said, still gazing at the lofty sphere,
    “Blessèd, fair soul, those who enjoy your view!”
    was then your voices called me, thanks to you.”

     
  14. bebi

    bebi Primus registratum

    Re: Dante Aligheri

    Gentil pensero che parla di vui

    Gentil pensero che parla di vui
    Sen vene a dimorar meco sovente,
    E ragiona d’amor sì dolcemente
    Che face consentir lo core in lui.

    L’anima dice al cor: “Chi è costui 5
    Che vene a consolar la nostra mente,
    Ed è la sua vertù tanto possente
    Ch’altro penser non lascia star con nui?”

    Ei le risponde: “Oi anima pensosa,
    Questi è uno spiritel novo d’amore, 10
    Che reca innanzi me li suoi desiri;

    E la sua vita, e tutto ‘l suo valore,
    Mosse de li occhi di quella pietosa
    Che si turbava de’ nostri martiri”. A Gentle Thought Reminding But of You

    A gentle thought reminding but of you
    comes often here to dwell and stay with me,
    conversing still of love so tenderly,
    it makes my heart agree and find it true.

    The soul says to the heart, “Who can he be, 5
    that comes to give our mind a solace new,
    and is so worthy and so strong to view,
    no other thought dare keep us company?”

    The heart replies to it, “Oh, pensive soul,
    this is a youthful spirit of new love, 10
    that now before me its own longing brings.

    All of its life and all its worthiness
    from the sweet glances of that lady move,
    who used to be perturbed by our distress.”
     

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